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This study qualitatively describes accidents between cetaceans and fishing boats on the Brazilian coast and the Central Amazon region through the perception of artisanal fishers. From 2005 to 2010, 215 interviews were conducted. Fishers identified encounters with five species: Inia geoffrensis, Sotalia guianensis, Tursiops truncatus, Eubalaena australis, and Megaptera novaeangliae. They said accidents occurred due to animal curiosity, high speed swimming, and calve protection. The authors propose co-management with local members, researchers, and the government to encourage feelings of collective ownership within communities aiming to minimize the number of collisions.